Sunday, 14 February 2016

Zika Virus Transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil

Zika Virus Transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil

To the Editor: Campos et al. () reported a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil in 2015. This response adds complementary data related to the propagation of this mosquitoborne disease.
To date, the largest ZIKV outbreak occurred in French Polynesia during 2013–2014. The outbreak spread to other Pacific Islands: New Caledonia, Cook Islands, Easter Island, Vanuatu, and Solomon Islands (). The origin of introduction of ZIKV to French Polynesia remains unknown; introduction of ZIKV in New Caledonia was after imported cases from French Polynesia (); introduction to Easter Island was suspected to have occurred among attendees of the annual Tapati festival, including those from French Polynesia (). The virus was likely transmitted to New Caledonia, Cook Islands, and Easter Island when infected travelers from French Polynesia were bitten by vectors while on the islands. Frequent travel between New Caledonia and Vanuatu is likely related to the introduction of ZIKV in the latter country.
Phylogenetic studies showed that the closest strain to the one that emerged in Brazil was isolated from samples from case-patients in French Polynesia and spread among the Pacific Islands (); both strains belong to the Asian lineage. It has been assumed that ZIKV was introduced to Brazil during a World Cup soccer competition in 2014 (), although no ZIKV-endemic Pacific countries competed. However, in August 2014, the Va’a World Sprint Championship canoe race was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four Pacific countries (French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Cook Islands, and Easter Island) in which ZIKV circulated during 2014 had teams engaged in this contest in several categories. These data combined with phylogenetic studies by Zanluca et al. () suggest that ZIKV introduction in Brazil may have been a consequence of this event. In areas where potential vectors are present, vigilance should be enhanced to detect imported cases of ZIKV, and laboratory capacity to confirm suspected ZIKV infections should be strengthened.


Suggested citation for this article: Musso D. Zika virus transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil [letter]. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct [date cited].


1. Campos GS, Bandeira AC, Sardi SI. Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015. Oct [cited 2016 Jul 7]. [PubMed]
2. Musso D, Cao-Lormeau V, Gubler D. Zika virus: following the path of dengue and chikungunya? Lancet. 2015;386:243–4. 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61273-9 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
3. Dupont-Rouzeyrol M, O’Connor O, Calvez E, Daurès M, John M, Grangeon JP, et al. Co-infection with Zika and dengue viruses in 2 patients, New Caledonia, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:381–2. 10.3201/eid2102.141553 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
4. Schwan K. Zika virus—Pacific (07): Chile (Easter Island), French Polynesia (07). ProMedmail. 2014. Mar 9 [cited 2016 Jul 7]., archive no. 20140309.2322907.
5. Zanluca C, de Melo VCA, Mosimann ALP, dos Santos GIV, dos Santos CND, Luz K. First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015;110:569–72. 10.1590/0074-02760150192 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

Saturday, 18 April 2015

Health Benefits of White Tea

Health Benefits of White Tea

  • White tea has impressive anti-bacterial and anti-viral qualities, which means it can deactivate bad bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In fact, white tea is even more powerful than green tea in disarming bacterial viruses! White tea also kills the bacteria that cause plaque, tooth decay, and bad breath.

  • The health benefits of white tea include weight management. White tea has caffeine, which may enhance weight loss, and white tea's high levels of antioxidants can help to boost your metabolism and curb your appetite. Even better, research about white tea and weight loss has shown that white tea can prevent new fat cells from developing and encourage the breakdown of fat in existing fat cells, as well. (Just remember, if you're thinking of adding white tea to your overall weight loss plan, be sure to check with your healthcare provider first.)
  • White tea fights the effects of aging (like wrinkles and loss of skin elasticity). Time, too much sun exposure, stress, and poor dietary choices can damage our skin, causing it to age - sometimes prematurely. White tea's antioxidants and anti-aging properties protect and help reverse this damage to skin, and can even help skin build resistance to stress. For healthy, firmer, radiant skin, sip white tea - and consider adding it to your skin care routine, too (research has shown white tea to have topical benefits for skin, as well)!
Silver needles Chinese tea leaves
  • The benefits of drinking white tea extend to bone health - regular intake of white tea can improve bone density and strength, and may provide relief from the symptoms of osteoporosis.


Saturday, 21 March 2015

I Knew Sugar Was Bad, But This Blew Me Away!

I Knew Sugar Was Bad, But This Blew Me Away!


Botanical Name(s): Artocarpus Heterophyllus
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Artocarpeae
Genus: Artocarpus
Species: A. heterophyllus
Popular Name(s): Jakfruit, Jaca, Nangka
Parts Used: Seeds, fruit, leaves
Habitat: Rainforests of India


The largest tree-borne fruit in the world, jackfruit (artocarpus heterophyllus) is grown on a species of tree in the mulberry family. The evergreen trees are large, often reaching a height of above 20 m. The jackfruits can sometimes weigh over 75 lbs. however, the average sized fruits are 1-2 feet long, and 9-12" wide. The exterior of the fruit is green-yellow, with small spiky knobs, while the flesh is custard yellow, with a banana-like flavor. The leaves are oblong, oval or elliptic, usually 4 to 6 inches in length and leathery, glossy and deep green in color.

There are two varieties of jackfruits: one that is small, fibrous, soft, and mushy and the carpels are sweet, with a texture like that of a raw oyster. The other variety is crisp and crunchy, but not very sweet. Jackfruits are believed to have originated in the rain forests of the Western Ghats in India. They are vegetated in other parts of India, South-east Asia, East Indies, Philippines, Brazil and Surinam also. Jackfruit is known as kanthal in Bangla, panasa in Sanskrit, katahal in Hindi, pala in Tamil and chakka in Malayalam.

Plant Chemicals
(+)- all-trans-lutein (24-44%), all-trans-beta-carotene (24-30%), all-trans-neoxanthin (4-19%), 9-cis-neoxanthin (4-19%), 9-cis-violaxanthin (4-10%)

Uses & Benefits of Jackfruit
  • The leaves of jackfruit tree are useful for curing fever, boils and skin diseases. When heated, they prove useful in curing wounds.
  • The latex of the fruit is helpful in treating dysopia, opthalmities and pharyngitis.
  • The latex can also be mixed with vinegar to heal abscesses, snakebites and glandular swellings.
  • The wood of jackfruit tree is widely used in manufacturing musical instruments, furniture, doors, windows and roof constructions.
  • The seed starch is useful in relieving biliousness, while the roasted seeds are regarded as aphrodisiac.
  • To heal ulcers, the ash of jackfruit leaves is burnt with corn and coconut shells and used either alone or mixed with coconut oil.
  • The root of jackfruit tree forms the remedy for skin diseases, fever and diarrhea.
  • The heartwood of the tree is used by Buddhist forest monastics in Southeast Asia, for dying the robes of the monks to light brown color.
  • In China, the pulp and seeds of jackfruit are considered as a cooling and nutritious tonic. The fruit is useful in overcoming the influence of alcohol on a person’s body system.

  • The wood of jackfruit tree has sedative properties, due to which its pith can result in abortion.
  • Jackfruit can increase coagulation.
  • People who are allergic to birch pollen can show signs of allergy towards jackfruit.

Tuesday, 30 December 2014

1987: WHO Admits Its Smallpox Vaccine Caused AIDS - WHO Omits That It Requested The Virus

1987: WHO Admits Its Smallpox Vaccine Caused AIDS - WHO Omits That It Requested The Virus

"[A] 1972 report (Bulletin #47) issued by the World Health Organization .... referred to an immune virus requested [Emphasis added] which would selectively destroy the Human T Cell System, to be distributed in conjunction with a Nationwide vaccination program "to observe the results". This coincided precisely with the extensive Small Pox vaccination program in central Africa - shortly preceding the outbreak of Aids in Africa, America & elsewhere. The determining factor most common in Aids victims is the breakdown of the T Cell System in the body."

Below is an article describing how the WHO attempted to deal with those who saw and questioned the obvious connection between the WHO's massive smallpox vaccine campaign and the outbreak of AIDS in all the places it gave it.
Before reading the following article about the WHO and the smallpox vaccine, please be aware of seven things. 

1.  People have seen that ebola suddenly broke out in each of the places the WHO (and UN and UNICEF and Doctors without Borders) recently ran vaccine campaigns in West Africa.
2.  Ebola is a man-made bioweapons owned and patented by the US government and the CDC.

3.  The WHO now, on the basis of ebola outbreaks that coincided with its own vaccine campaign,  now plans a massive vaccine campaign against ebola with untested vaccines that will contain the ebola virus (a bioweapon) that can cause ebola and mass deaths.
4.  The US is interested in the oil, diamonds and minerals in West Africa, has been stopped by people living there, but, because of an "ebola emergency" claimed by the WHO after there were outbreaks of ebola following the WHO vaccine campaigns there, now has 1000s of troops in West Africa.
5.  The US and other countries who contribute to the WHO were also interested in the mineral wealth of Central Africa prior to the WHO's smallpox vaccination campaign.
6.  The pharmaceutical industry which was the main supporters of Hitler and intensely interested in genocide, became the main supporters of the WHO, coincidentally formed immediately after WWII, was involved in killing millions with the smallpox vaccines.  They coincidentally made an immense fortune on AIDS drugs and research funding, all the while not revealing that the WHO had requested an AIDS-like virus just prior to the pharmaceutical industry making the small pox vaccine and AIDS breaking out immediately afterwards.
7.  This WHO vaccine campaign issue is not a historical issue because Bush's pandemic laws and the WHO International Health Regulations would make vaccines mandatory now if the WHO declares a  pandemic emergency (with no proof needed) and even if people believed they could cause more AIDS or cause ebola and deadly.  Then, it would be Americans, not just Africans hiding from vaccines or killing vaccine teams because the vaccines are killing tens of thousands of children

Saturday, 1 November 2014

Top 3 Medicine Brands for a Dry Cough

       Top 3 Medicine Brands for a Dry Cough

The cough and cold medicine aisle is often confusing, and determining which product is the best cough medicine for a dry cough can be a challenge. There are cough suppressants, expectorants, decongestants, and a host of other medicines available. When you have a persistent dry cough, the best thing to do is to consult a doctor so that you can treat the underlying cause. If you need something soothe the symptoms you can take something that will fight off your body’s urge to cough. If the major symptom you are dealing with is a dry cough, and you are an adult with no other health problems, consider choosing one of these cough medicines, which get great reviews from doctors as well as patients. Remember that these don’t cure your cough they only suppress your body’s natural urge to cough. You should talk to your doctor and your pharmacist before taking any medications, especially if you also take prescription medication.
Always follow the directions on the product and consult a physician before trying any new medicinal products.

Best Cough Medicine for a Dry Cough: Mucinex

Mucinex is a powerful cough suppressant that controls your cough for 12 hours. While its clever commercials talk about the dramatic results it has when breaking up mucus, this medicine also works extremely well for a dry cough, where no mucus or phlegm is present. If a minor cold, allergy, or simple throat irritation is causing you to cough uncontrollably, take Mucinex as indicated on the box every 12 hours and you will begin feeling better as soon as your first dose sets in.
The active ingredient in Mucinex is Guaifenesin, which is provided in a convenient time extended tablet. If you look at a Mucinex pill, you will see one side is white. That is the medicine that is released immediately. The other side is a colored layer, which releases additional cough medicine into your system every hour to combat your cough. It is so much easier than remembering to take another dose of medicine every few hours. You can chose between Mucinex DM and Maximum Strength Mucinex, for your worst cough that seems impossible to shake.
Mucinex is a little more expensive than many other cough medicines on the market. Depending on the dosage and size of the box you buy, you can expect to spend between $15 and $20 on a package of 14 to 20 600mg pills. Be prepared to show some identification at the pharmacy or retailer where you buy it. Although it is an over-the-counter (OTC) medication, its strength requires that you be an adult in order to purchase it. Mucinex gets the first-place rating because it works immediately and you only have to take it every 12 hours.

Second Best Cough Medicine for a Dry Cough: Robitussin

Another popular brand, Robitussin, contains Guaifensin as well. It also contains suppressants that will calm your cough, and help your body reduce the impulse to cough. Most of Robitussin’s cough medicines are combined with medicine to treat chest congestion. Although you can get Robitussin cough gels and Robitussin Lingering Cold Long Acting cough gels which only contain cough suppressant. Your unproductive/productive cough will benefit from Robitussin Cough + Chest Congestion, but keep in mind that it contains an expectorant you may not need for your dry cough.
You can purchase Robitussin in bottles that are 4 ounces, 8 ounces, or 12 ounces as well as gel capsules. It will cost you less than $10 in most drug stores. Robitussin is in second place because while it isn’t as effective as Mucinex it is just as effective as Tylenol (our third recommendation) in treating your dry cough, but offers products that work only on suppressing coughs without unnecessary additional medicine.

Third Best Cough Medicine for a Dry Cough: Tylenol

Tylenol is a well-known brand for a host of medications that treat pain, fever, coughs, and colds. It is reliable and easily accessible. While the Tylenol Cold & Cough for Daytime, as well as Tylenol Cold & Cough for Nighttime are currently (and perhaps temporarily) off the market, the Tylenol Cold medicine can still be obtained. You might also benefit from Tylenol Cold & Sore Throat if your dry cough is irritating your throat, and causing it to hurt.
Tylenol Cold comes in a liquid form and is available as a Daytime or Nighttime product. You can also get it in capsule form, and there is a package on the market that provides both Tylenol Cold Daytime and Tylenol Cold Nighttime dosages. Tylenol treats many different symptoms that show up during the common cold, including a headache, fever, stuffy nose, and cough. While the medicine is not specifically targeted for a dry cough, it will still help you when you are suffering from such a cough. The Tylenol Cold Nighttime will help you sleep, and with the Daytime dose, you will find you are better able to control and manage your cough.

Tylenol contains Dextromethorphan HBr, which works to suppress your cough. It also has Guaifenesin, like Mucinex, but not in a time release format. You will need to take Tylenol every four hours in order to keep your cough suppressed. It will cost you under $10 in any local drugstore or department store. Tylenol came in third place because it is reliable in treating your dry cough, but it has a lot of extra medicine that you don’t necessarily need when you just have a dry cough.

Monday, 27 October 2014

STROKE signs

Stroke has a New Indicator     They say if you email this to ten people, you stand a chance of saving one life. Will you send this along?  Blood Clots/Stroke - They Now Have a Fourth Indicator,  theTongue 

I will continue to forward this every time it comes around!

Remember the 1st Three Letters.....S. T. R.  


It only takes a minute to read this.

A neurologist says that if he can get to a stroke victim within 3 hours he can totally reverse the effects of a stroke...totally. He said the trick was getting a stroke recognized, diagnosed, and then getting the patient medically cared for within 3 hours, which is tough.


Thank God for the sense to remember the '3' steps - STR.
Read and Learn!

Sometimes symptoms of a stroke are difficult to identify. Unfortunately, the lack of awareness spells disaster. The stroke victim may suffer severe brain damage when people nearby fail to recognize the symptoms of a stroke.

Now doctors say a  bystander can recognize a stroke by asking three simple questions:

S  *
Ask the individual to SMILE.

T  *
Ask the person to TALK and SPEAK 
(i.e.  Chicken Soup)

  *Ask him or her to RAISE BOTH ARMS.

If he or she has trouble with ANY ONE of these tasks, call emergency number immediately and describe the symptoms to the dispatcher.

New Sign of a Stroke -------- Stick out Your Tongue

NOTE:  Another 'sign' of a stroke is this: Ask the person to 'stick' out his tongue. If the tongue is

'crooked', if it goes to one side or the other
 that is also an indication of a stroke.

A cardiologist says if everyone who gets this e-mail sends it to 10 people; you can bet that at least one life will be saved.

I have done my part. Will you?